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"King of Scotland" James V Stewart, (Stuart)

"King of Scotland" James V Stewart, (Stuart)

Male 1512 - 1542  (30 years)

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  • Name James V Stewart 
    'King of Scotland' James V, Stewart
    "King of Scotland" James V, Stewart
    "King of Scotland" James V, Stewart
    Title "King of Scotland" 
    Suffix (Stuart) 
    Born 12 Apr 1512  Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Linlithgow Palace
    Linlithgow Palace
    Linlithgow lies roughly midway between Edinburgh and Stirling. The ruins of the palace stand beside St Michael's parish church (right) on a natural hillock, which overlooks the town to the south and extends as a promontory into Linlithgow loch on the north (below). A royal manor house probably existed on this site from the mid-twelfth century, when Kind David I founded the burgh. Linlithgow's position made it an ideal site for a military base, and in 1302 the English king set about transforming it into a secure stronghold built mostly of earth and wood. The promontory was cut off from the town by a deep ditch, behind which was erected a "pele" or stockade, made of split tree trunks. After the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, the castle returned to Scottish hands. Nothing remains today of the early manor house except the name, the "Peel" which today applies to the whole of the Royal Park surrounding the palace.
    In 1424, a disastrous fire destroyed most of the town of Linlithgow as well as the parish church and the royal manor house. King James I (below right), who had only recently returned from exile in England, set in train almost at once a programme of building work, which, little more than a century later, came to completion in the royal palace much as we see it today. Work was concentrated on what is now the east range, including the great hall, and the adjacent parts of the north and south ranges. The palace would thus have had a C-shaped plan, probably open on the west. The grandiose gateway (below left) in the centre of the palace's east wall still survives, though the ramp and drawbridge before it have long since gone. The principal room of the new palace was the great hall. This ranks as one of the finest medieval interiors in Scotland, though in its present form it dates largely from the reign of James IV.
    Some further repairs and alterations were made under the reigns of James II and James III between 1437 and 1488 but it was not until James IV (Mary's grand-father) came to the throne that any significant changes occurred. The most significant element in the new work was the completion of the new west range, closing off what had formerly been the open side of James I's palace. This new range contained suites of royal apartments for the king and queen. The great hall was remodelled, the kitchens, brew house, larders and pantry renovated and works were also carried out to the north range. The south-east corner was completely rebuilt above ground-floor level. Immediately west of this, a new chapel was constructed where at first-floor level where some of the royal apartments had probably been before. A three-tiered enclosed gallery was built on the north side of the south range overlooking the central court (below), to link the great hall with the new west range. The peculiarly English style of this façade is perhaps the result of English masons working on the palace, following the king's marriage in 1503 to Margaret Tudor, the daughter of King Henry VII of England. On 9 September 1513, the peace with England having foundered, James IV faced the Earl of Surrey's army on Flodden Field, where he fell along with many of the Scottish nobility. Queen Margaret is reputed to have waited vainly for his return from the battle in the draughty look-out post above the north-west turnpike stair, known today as "Queen Margaret's bower". In 1514 she married Archibald Douglas, sixth earl of Angus, and fled Scotland with him.
    Margaret had given birth to a son on 10 April 1512 who succeeded his father as James V (Mary's father). Work began again in 1534. The main entrance to the palace, inconveniently situated on the east side, was moved to the south, and an outer gateway was built south of it, giving access to the outer enclosure from the town. The proportions of the south front were also improved by straightening out the south wall and enlarging the south-west tower to balance the one on the south-east. In the chapel a new wooden ceiling and canopied altarpiece were inserted, the interior was painted and the windows re-glazed with painted images. The great hall was refurnished and given new windows; alterations were made to the kitchens and the external sculptures were painted. The fountain in the centre of the court (above) was built around 1538; and in 1540 there is reference to a catchpull, or tennis court, similar to the one still surviving at Falkland Palace. Mary of Guise-Lorraine (Mary's mother) whom he married in 1537, is reported to have compared Linlithgow Palace to the noblest châteaux in France.
    After the death of James V and the birth of Mary Queen of Scots, various small expenditures were made on the palace during the regency of Mary of Guise. The palace and its surrounding park and garden appear to have been kept in reasonable repair during the years of Mary's brief personal rule when she occasionally resided there. Various important prisoners were warded in the palace at this time, including, in 1579, the insane third earl of Arran and his mother. However, by the time Mary's son, James VI was old enough to assume control of the government in 1585, the years of neglect at Linlithgow were beginning to seriously affect the stability of the palace. It was to be another 11 years before the king's officers began to repair the damage. The north range (above left) was finally rebuilt and represents, even in its present ruined state, one of the finest Renaissance façades in Scotland. In 1603, on the death of Queen Elizabeth I of England, the court moved to London. The new palace buildings at Linlithgow, built after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England, were evidently intended to provide fitting accommodation for the enlarged court that would have accompanied the king when he returned to visit his native land. However, James did not visit Linlithgow when he returned to Scotland in 1617. When his son Charles I took over in 1625, several repairs were carried out in preparation for his visit. Following his execution in 1649, the Scots proclaimed his son as Charles II, and Oliver Cromwell invaded the country. He defeated the Scots army at Dunbar in September 1650 and spent the winter at Linlithgow. Charles II was restored and ordered in January 1663 to have the English defenses levelled. His brother, James VII was removed from the throne during the "Glorious Revolution" in 1688-89. In 1745, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender (Bonnie Prince Charlie) above right), was the last of that house to stay in the building. In January 1746 troops of the duke of Cumberland's army marched out of the palace leaving fires burning which soon caught hold of the building and burnt it out.

    Since 1746, the palace has remained unroofed and uninhabited. In 1906 the fireplace in the great hall was restored and a programme of clearance and consolidation was carried through over the next three decades. Today the palace is cared for and on behalf of the Secretary of State for Scotland by Historic Buildings and Monuments. The peel is administered as one of the Royal Parks, and for this reason, like the park of Holyroodhouse, it has its own police force.
    Gender Male 
    Crowned 21 Sep 1513 
    "King James V of Scotland" 
    Crown of James V of Scotland
    Crown of James V of Scotland
    Crown of James V of Scotland
    Died 10 Jun 1542  Falkland Palace, Falkland, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Falkland Palace
    Falkland Palace
    Falkland Palace in Fife started life as a hunting lodge in the 12th century then became a MacDuff family castle. The Crown acquired the Palace from the MacDuffs in the 14th century. David Stewart, the Duke of Rothesay, died there of neglect and starvation whilst imprisoned in the 15th century.

    Between 1501 and 1541 James IV and James V transformed the castle into the splendid Renaissance palace it would become, including the Real Tennis Court built in 1539.

    Much of the work at Falkland was conducted by French architects and craftsman - James even wrote to Marie de Guise's mother asking her to send French masons to Scotland to work on his palaces. The French mason Nicholas Roy, who worked on Falkland Palace for 21 shillings a week, later became the King’s Master Mason.

    Falkland Palace became a favourite retreat of James V. He would die at Falkland in 1542.

    Cromwell’s invading army burned the palace, which then fell into ruin. Falkland Palace was rescued in 1887 when John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, started its restoration. The Crichton-Stuarts still own the Palace, which is managed by the National Trust for Scotland.
    Notes 
    • When James IV was killed at Flodden, yet another royal minority ensued, for his son James V was only one year old.

      The Scots were reluctant to accept his English mother Margaret Tudor as Regent, and after her remarriage in 1514 they replaced her with James IV's half-French cousin, the Duke of Albany.

      Queen Margaret's tempestuous private life complicated her son's childhood, and after she divorced her second husband, Archibald Douglas 6th Earl of Angus, the Earl kidnapped young James.

      For two years he held him captive, showering him with gifts and introducing him to a round of unsuitable pleasures. James loathed his former stepfather, and finally managed to escape in 1528, to rule by himself.

      James' personal rule began by savagely pursuing his opponents and he hounded the Earl of Angus out of Scotland. James combined suspicion of nobles with a popular touch, travelling anonymously among Scottish people as the 'Gudeman o'Ballengeich'.

      John Knox described him thus: 'he was called of some, a good poor man's king; of others he was termed a murderer of the nobility, and one that had decreed their whole destruction'.

      In 1536 he decided to marry. A highly strung, intelligent man who alternated between black depression and bouts of feverish energy, he had already fathered at least nine illegitimate children by a series of mistresses.

      He now chose as his wife Princess Madeleine of France, for he was eager to strengthen 'the Auld Alliance' against England. The Princess was tubercular, and she died in his arms on 7 July 1537, seven weeks after her arrival in Edinburgh.

      In 1538 he married another French lady, the widowed Mary of Guise, tall, well-built and already the mother of two sons. She had two more sons by James but they both died in infancy within hours of each other in 1541.

      James V's uncle, Henry VIII, who had by now broken with the Roman Catholic Church and dissolved the monasteries, was urging him to do the same. He refused to listen to his uncle's persuasions and in 1542 failed to go to an arranged meeting with Henry at York.

      Furious, Henry launched an invasion of Scotland. Already ill, James marched south with his army, to defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss on the Scottish/English Border, on 24 November 1542.

      Although he himself had not been present at the battle, James suffered a complete nervous collapse. Retiring to Falkland Palace in Fife he took to his bed with a high fever and, when a messenger came to tell him that his pregnant queen had given birth to a daughter instead of the hoped-for son, he believed that the Stewart dynasty was at an end.

      'It cam wi' a lass and it will gang wi' a lass', he said, remembering how the crown had come to his family through Marjorie Bruce and fearing that no woman could ever rule his troubled nation. Six days later, he was dead.

      Source: The Official Website of the British Monarchy
    Person ID I89442  MRP Tree
    Last Modified 13 Apr 2015 

    Family Mary De Guise,   b. 1510,   d. 1537  (Age 27 years) 
    Children 
    +1. Mary Stuart,   b. 7 Dec 1542,   d. 8 Feb 1586/1587  (Age 44 years)
    Family ID F29271  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 12 Apr 1512 - Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 10 Jun 1542 - Falkland Palace, Falkland, England Link to Google Earth
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