- There is conflicting information in regards to
where Edward Tonkins Shinn is interred.
Military Record of Death & Interment states:
Number and locality of the grave:
#677 Ash Grove U.S. Cemetery, Annapolis, Maryland
(Annapolis National Cemetery)
References & remarks: Body turned over to his wife June 25, 1864.
The American Telegraph Company.
North, South, East & West.
Dated: Annapolis June 25th 1864.
To: Wm R. Schuyler
Edward is dead will be on with the body tomorrow
It is conjecture but with this info. from the telegram it is believed that Edward may be interred in St. Mary's Episcopal Church Yard Cemetery, close to the Church.
15 Apr 2007/CSL
Civil war veteran. Units served in:
. 23rd NJ Vol. infantry
13 Sep 1862-27 Jun 1863.
. 2nd Pa. Heavy Artillery.
17 Feb 1864-30 Apr 1864.
. 2nd Pennsylvaina Provisional Heavy Artillery
30 Apr 1864-17 Jun 1864.
Revised: 8 Jun 2008
Edward T. Shinn (First_Last)
Regiment Name: 23 New Jersey Infantry
Soldier's Rank_In Pvt.
Soldier's Rank_Out Pvt.
Alternate Name: N/A
Notes Film Number M550 roll 21
23rd Regiment, New Jersey Infantry:
Beverly, N. J., and mustered in September 13, 1862.
Left State for Washington, D. C., September 26, thence moved to Frederick, Md.
Attached to 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 6th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1863.
March to Bakersville, Md., October 8, 1862, and joined 1st New Jersey Brigade.
At Bakersville, Md., till October 30.
At New Baltimore November 9-16.
Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15.
Duty near Falmouth, Va., till April 27, 1863.
"Mud March" January 20-24.
Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6.
Operations at Franklin's Crossing April 29-May 2.
Battle of Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg, May 3.
Salem Heights May 3-4. Banks' Ford May 4.
Regiment volunteered for service before muster out during the Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign moved to Harrisburg, Pa. Mustered out June 27, 1863.
Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 31 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 54 Enlisted men by disease. Total 90.
*Enlisted 8/25/62 as a private; residence not listed.
On 9/13/1862 he mustered into "A" Company, New Jersey 23rd Infantry.
Edward was mustered out on 6/27/1863 at Beverly, NJ.
From the 122 volume edition of: "The War of the Rebellion" 1892 A compilation of the offical records of the Union & Confederate Armies." comes the following information.
2nd Heavy Artillery/112th Regiment
In October, 1861, authority was granted by the War Department, upon the recommendation of General M'Clellan, to Charles Angeroth, of Philadelphia, to recruit a battalion of Heavy Artillery-soon after extended to a regiment-which was designated the Second Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, One Hundred and Twelfth of the line. A camp of rendezvous was established in Camden, New Jersey, and Headquarters at No. 506, Vine Street, Philadelphia. In January, 1862, the regiment was organized by the muster in of the following field officers:
* Charles Angeroth, Colonel
* John H. Oberteuffer, Sr., Lieutenant Colonel
* William Candidus, Major.
The men were principally recruited in the counties of Franklin, Allegheny, and Monroe, and from the city and county of Philadelphia.
On the 9th of January, companies D, G, and H, were ordered to duty at Fort Delaware, whither they at once proceeded, under command of Captain James S. Anderson. On the 25th of February, the remaining seven companies were ordered to Washington, and upon their arrival, reported to General Abner Doubleday, who assigned them to duty in the fortifications north of the city, and near to Bladensburg.
On the 19th of March, the three companies at Fort Delaware, re-joined the regiment. In June following, Colonel Angeroth having resigned, was discharged from the service, and Augustus A. Gibson, Captain in the Second Artillery, U. S. A., was commissioned to succeed him.
On the 24th of November, two independent artillery companies, recruited in Luzerne county, which had also been on duty at Fort Delaware, were assigned to the regiment, and were designated companies L, and M., increasing the number to twelve. The regiment remained in the works North of the Potomac, until the 26th of March, 1864, when it was transferred to the defences south of the river, garrisoning Forts Ethan Allen, and Marcy, near the Chain Bridge.
While thus engaged, the regiment became celebrated for its proficiency in drill and soldierly appearance, but to this time had no opportunity of displaying its skill in battle.
In the spring of 1864 though the regiment numbered eighteen hundred and thirty-six men, rank and file, a much larger number than that allowed by law, recruits still continued to arrive in large numbers. It was accordingly determined to organize, from the surplus men, a new regiment, and on the 18th of April, an order was issued from the War Department, authorizing its formation, under the name of the Second Provisional Heavy Artillery. Officers were selected from among the officers and enlisted men of the old regiment, to serve as provisional officers of the new regiment, until their service, as such, should be no longer needed, when they were to resume their places in the old regiment with their former grade.Before the division was made, the regiment numbered three thousand three hundred men.
The new regiment was organized on the 20th of April, 1864, and in command of its provisional officers was sent to the front where it was assigned to duty with the Ninth Corps. With that corps it participated in the battle of the Wilderness, and in all the operations of the campaign, until it arrived before Petersburg.
Among the killed, in this campaign, were Captain Samuel H. Davis, who fell at Cold Harbor, and Lieutenant Thomas C. Sharpe, in the charge upon the Petersburg front, on the 17th of June.
(**also Corporal Edward T. Shinn was wounded this same day, only to die of his wounds on the 24 Jun 1864, in Ward 11 Sec 1, of a general hospital in Annapolis, Maryland.)
On the 27th of May, the original regiment was ordered to join the Army of the Potomac, and marching through Washington, embarked upon transports, at Sixth street. On the 28th, it arrived at Port Royal, on the Rappahannock, and marching sixty miles across the country, joined the Eighteenth Army Corps, under General Baldy Smith, on the 4th of June, at Cold Harbor.
Being too large to maneuver as a whole, as infantry, the regiment was formed in three battalions, of four companies each:
Major Anderson, who had succeeded Major Candidus, since the resignation of the latter, on the 22d of August, 1862, in command of the first.
Captain Jones in command of the second, and Major Sadler of the third.
Colonel Gibson had command of the whole, Lieutenant Colonel Oberteuffer having remained on duty in the defences of Washington.
On the 18th of June, the Second Battalion was ordered to join in a charge upon the rebel entrenched line, between City Point Railroad, and the Appomattox River, on the Petersburg front. Owing to the failure of the troops on the left of the battalion to move promptly, the whole fire of the rebel line was concentrated upon it, checking it, and preventing it from carrying the enemy's works.
The ground gained was, however, held, the men screening themselves from sight by the tall oats through which they had charged, and using their bayonets and tin cups in making for themselves a partial shelter, At night the line was strengthened, and continued to be occupied as the front line until the fall of the city, nearly a year afterwards. In this charge, the battalion lost ten killed and sixty-five wounded, all within a few minutes.
Among the latter was Captain Jones, who received a severe wound in the left shoulder. Upon his fall, the command devolved on Captain M'Clure, of company F.
This regiment, with the Eighty-ninth New York, now constituted the Second Brigade, Second Division, of the Eighteenth Corps.
The leave of absence from the regular army, granted to Colonel Gibson to take command of this volunteer regiment, having been revoked, he was, on the 21st of July, relieved by Major Anderson. During the months of June, July, and August, the regiment performed arduous duties in the trenches, stretching from the Appomattox River to the Jerusalem Plank Road, losing in that time more than half its effective strength, being reduced from eighteen hundred and thirty-six, to less than nine hundred.
On the 23d of August, the Twenty-third Corps was relieved by the Tenth Corps, and marched to the Bermuda front, to rest and recuperate. On the 5th of September, about four hundred men, all that were left of the provisional regiment, re-joined the old regiment.
During their absence, the Provisionals, as they were termed, had performed exceedingly hard service, and lost, in the short space of four months, about one thousand men.
When the mine was exploded, the provisional regiment formed part of the brigade that had the advance in the charge, and dashed into the crater, losing heavily in killed, wounded, and prisoners.
On the 20th of September, a movement of the Army of the James was made, which resulted in the capture of Fort Harrison, and the permanent establishment of the right wing of the army, north of the James River. During the day, the First and Second battalions, under command of Major Anderson, were ordered to make a charge on the rebel works in rear of the Fort. The movement was not supported, and resulted disastrously, the loss in the two battalions being over two hundred, in killed, wounded, and prisoners.
Among the killed was Major Anderson, whose commission as Colonel, reached regimental headquarters on the day after his death, and Lieutenant Presley Cannon. Among the severely wounded, were Captain N. Baggs of the Staff of Colonel Fairchild, commanding the brigade, and Lieutenants John B. Krepps, and Wm. Barba. Major Sadler, and Lieutenants Wilson, Laughlin, and Mumford, were among the captured.
Upon the death of Colonel Anderson, Captain Wm. M. M'Clure, of company F, was appointed Colonel, Captain S. D. Strawbridge, Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain Benjamin F. Winger, Major.
The regiment occupied the line south of Fort Harrison, now Fort Burnham, until the 2d of December following when it was ordered to the Bermuda Front. The original term of service expired in January, 1865. A large number re-enlisted, and with the recruits formed an aggregate of over two thousand men still remaining in the service. At the expiration of his term, on the 7th of March, Colonel M'Clure was honorably discharged, and was succeeded by Lieutenant Colonel Strawbridge, Major Benjamin F. Winger being commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, and Captains David Schooley, and William S. Bailey, Majors.
On the 31st of March, the regiment charged upon the enemy's lines, and again on the following day, capturing some prisoners. After the evacuation of Petersburg, the regiment was ordered to duty in that city, and upon the surrender of the rebel army, a week later, the companies were distributed through the lower counties of Virginia, for the purpose of maintaining order and tranquility.
Until the South was divided into Departments and Posts, in the beginning of the year 1866, the regiment continued to perform this duty.
It was finally mustered out of service, on the 29th of January, 1866, at City Point, Virginia, whence it returned to Philadelphia, where, on the 16th of February 1866, it was discharged.
From the fact that this regiment was entrusted with the defences of Washington, during a long and dark period of the rebellion, shows that the authorities had full confidence in the fidelity and heroism of both officers and men. By its confinement here, it was robbed of the opportunity of displaying its prowess on sanguinary fields, until it joined the Army of the Potomac, in the Wilderness campaign, when it was at once put upon severe duty, and until the close of the war endured hardships and braved dangers with the best, sustaining losses that well attest the perilous service to which it was subjected.
Organized at Philadelphia January 8. 1862. (Cos. "D," "G" and "H" ordered to Fort Delaware January 9, and duty there till March 19, 1862, when they rejoined the Regiment in the Defenses of Washington).
Companies "A," "B," "C," "E," "F," "I" and "K" moved to Washington, D.C., February 25, 1862.
Attached to Artillery Brigade, Military District of Washington, to August, 1862.
Defenses of Washington north of the Potomac to October, 1862.
1st Brigade, Haskins' Division, Defenses north of the Potomac, to February, 1863.
1st Brigade, Haskins' Division, 22nd Army Corps, Dept. Washington, to March, 1864.
1st Brigade, DeRussy's Division, 22nd Corps, to May, 1864.
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to December, 1864.
Provisional Brigade, Defenses of Bermuda Hundred, Va., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to April, 1865.
1st Brigade, Ferrero's Division, Dept. of Virginia, to May, 1865.
Sub-District of the Blackwater, Dept. of Virginia, to January, 1866
Garrison duty in the Defenses of Washington north of the Potomac till May 27, 1864.
(2 Independent Cos. Heavy Artillery assigned as Cos. "L" and "M" November 24, 1862.)
Moved to Port Royal, Va., May 27-28, 1864, thence marched to Cold Harbor May 28-June 4.
Battles about Cold Harbor June 4-12.
Before Petersburg June 15-19.
Siege operations against Petersburg and Richmond June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865.
In trenches before Petersburg till August 23, 1864.
Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30 1864.
Duty on the Bermuda Hundred front till September.
Weldon Railroad August 18-21.
Chaffin's Farm, New Market Heights, September 28-30.
Fair Oaks October 27-28 (Co. "G").
Ordered to Bermuda front 2 December 1864, and duty there till April, 1865.
Fall of Petersburg April 2 1865.
Duty at Petersburg till May, and in counties of lower Virginia, Sub-District of the
Blackwater, District of the Nottaway, till January, 1866.
Mustered out at City Point, Va., January 29. 1866, and
Discharged at Philadelphia, Pa., February 16, 1866.
Regiment lost during service 5 Officers and 221 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 5 Officers and 385 Enlisted men by disease. Total 616.
from the Rapidan to the James May 4-June 12.
Battles of the Wilderness, Va., May 5-7
Spottsylvania May 8-21
North Anna River May 23-26
Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28
Totopotomoy May 28-31
Cold Harbor June 1-12
Before Petersburg June 15-18
Siege of Petersburg till August 20
Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30.
Regiment disbanded August 20, 1864, and rejoined original Regiment September 5, 1864.
June 15-18, 1864 - Initial Assaults, Petersburg,Va.
July 30, 1864 - The Crater
August 18, 1864 - Weldon Railroad
(Excerpt from Regimental Losses in The American Civil War, William Fox, Lt. Col., U.S.V. 1898)
(National Park Service information)
On June 17, 1864 The 2nd Pennsylvania Provisional Hvy. Arty. Regt. was in the Army of the Potomac.
Commanded by: Maj. Gen. George Gordan Meade.
The Army of the Potomac was comprised of 3 Corps - including the 9th Corp
Commanded by: Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside
Included in the 9th was the 1st Division.
Commanded by: Brig. Gen. James H. Ledlie
(who had assumed command on June 9 from Maj. Gen. Thomas Crittenden.)
The 1st Division consisted of one Infantry Brigade and two Artillery Regiments.
Which consisted of the:
29th Massachusetts Infantry Commanded by: Col. Ebenezer W. Pierce
14th New York Heavy Artillery Commanded by: Col. Elisha Gaylord Marshall (Brevet Brig. Gen.) in command during the battle of Cold Harbor.
2nd Pennsylvania Provisional Heavy Artillery Commanded by: Col. Thomas Wilhelm (Brevet Brig. Gen.) in command during the battle of Cold Harbor. Maj Thomas Wilhelm; commissioned Capt 12/19/1861; Maj 11/25/1862; Acting Col. Prov Reg't Heavy Art'y 1864; Capt in Vet Res Corps 1865.
B. Griffin Barney Captain November 28, 1862 Wounded at Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864;
Lt. Colonel of 2nd Provisional Art'y from April 20, to September 5, 1864.
Brevet Brigadier General, March 13, 1865. Discharged on Surgeon's Certificate, November 19, 1864.
Shinn, Edward T.
(Date of Muster into Service) February 17, 1864
Notes: Not on muster-out roll for Co. "H"
3rd Brigade, 2 division, 18th Corps
2nd Pa Heavy Artillery/112th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Battery "H".
Assigned: Between Feb 29, 1864 & April 20, 1864, 3rd Brigade, 1 Division, 9th Corps.
**2nd Pa Provisional Heavy Artillery/112th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Co. "C" 20 Apr 1864 regt. formed from surplus recruits.
Aquired: between 30 Apr 1864 & 17 Jun 1864 (from Co. Muster Roll of 31 Aug 1864)
2nd Regiment Pennsylvania Provisional Heavy Artillery.
Wounded: 17 Jun 1864
Admitted: 20 Jun 1864
Died: 24 Jun 1864
Patient # 16315
Ward: 11 Section 1
Body released: 25 Jun 1864 to his wife
Interred: Ash Grove U. S. Cemetery, Annapolis, Maryland (now Annapolis National Cemetery) Site #: 677
(The 14th NY and the 2nd Pa. though Artillery were utilized as Infantry.)
Badges were colored as follows:
Red First Division of Corps
White Second Division of Corps
Blue Third Division of Corps
Green Fourth Division of 6th, 9th and 20th Corps
Yellow Fourth Division of 15th Corps
Multicolor Headquarters or Artillery Elements (certain Corps)
Original was gilt, later colors, most have a nine over the gun and anchor.
The beginning of the Seige of Petersburg Va., Jun 9-18 1864.
On the 9th of June, while at Cold Harbor, General Crittenden was relieved at his own request, and General Ledlie was placed in command of the First Division.
June 16 Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside arrives in front of Petersburg with IX Corps, but Federal efforts to develop and attack Beauregard's new line are hesitant and not pressed with vigor.
As dawn of June 16th broke at Petersburg, Beauregard had a force of about 14,000 men, deployed with Hoke's division on the left, next to the river and extending to about halfway between the Prince George's Court House Road and the Baxter Road, and Johnson's division on the right, the latter arriving just in time to help beat off a Federal attack on the Confederate far right. This much force was probably strong enough to hold off Smith and Hancock. Confederate reinforcements did arrive that night, and a new line was formed along Harrison's Creek. With the arrival of Hancock's II Corps, which should have been present on the 15th, Union forces amounted to 30,000 on the morning of the 16th against just 14,000 Confederates.
Meanwhile Meade arrived at Petersburg and Grant returned to City Point to coordinate efforts with Butler's Army of the James. Hancock's attack pressed the Union lines up close to Beauregard's center, but failed to breach the Rebel defenses. The advance resulted in the seizure of three more of the Dimmock Line redoubts, but these had been essentially rendered untenable by Beauregard's withdrawal after Smith's attack the night before.
Redoubts - Works outside of the main protected area which supported cannon and infantry. The earthen works also contained logs. Ringed cities and other positions felt to be under imminent attack had redoubts built on the perimeter.
However, late on the morning of the 16th U.S. Grant arrived with Burnside and IX Corps, giving the Federals about 50,000 men, arranged with XVIII Corps on the right, along the river, II Corps in the center between the Prince George's Court House and Baxter Roads, and IX Corps going into the line on the left, roughly astride the Baxter Road. A morning probe was made along Hancock's front --- it was this attack,
in part at least, that Johnson's timely arrival helped to defeat --- in order to develop the Confederate lines for a later attack, which Grant ordered Hancock to make at 6 p.m.
By the time of the 6PM Union attacks along Harrison's Creek, the Federals had 50,000 men to just 14,000 Rebels. Much of this area was farmland at the time, and the Confederates had a clear field of fire from atop the small hill on the right. Hancock attacked with little success and suffered over 2,000 losses.
During the night of June 16-17, Meade received information indicating that Lee's troops were still north of the James, confirming information delivered by escaped prisoners who had worked their way through the lines. Thus satisfied that the trenches in his front were not manned by the Army of Northern Virginia, Meade ordered a moonlight assault, to be carried out by Burnside's IX Corps. Owing to the time required for preparation, the attack was put off until dawn.
June 17 At 3 a.m., 2/IX makes a brilliant dash on an exposed salient in the Rebel line, capturing 600 prisoners and nearly another full mile of entrenched line; but this success is not supported and is poorly exploited and the thin Rebel line continues to hold. Maj. Gen. Gouvernor K. Warren arrives with V Corps to extend the Federal line to the left.
In the first assault on Petersburg, June 17th, the corps made a brilliant attack, Potter's Division gaining possession of the works; unfortunately, the division was obliged to relinquish its foothold for want of proper support. The corps was engaged in a similar attempt on the following day, the losses in Potter's and Willcox's Divisions being unusually severe in proportion to the number engaged.
Loss: 497 killed, 3,232 wounded, and 262 missing; total, 2,991.
The enemy's works proving too strong for assault, the army intrenched itself preparatory to the ten months siege which followed.
On the morning of the 17th the 7th and 9th Corps renewed the attack upon the works at Petersburg, along Harrison's Creek, with Potter's division pushing the defenders back, breaking the Confederate line. But the incompetent division commander Ledlie failed to exploit the gains. Another attack was made by the 9th Corps in the afternoon, upon the hill where Fort Steadman was afterwards built was carried and held by the former. At 2PM, an attack by Willcox's division failed. That evening, Ledlie attacked, and a severe battle began, and continued until night, with great slaughter. Confederate counterattacks and darkness saved Petersburg. The Confederate forces having driven back the 9th (Burnside's) Corps. The battle would continue another day.
The objective of the attack was a salient occupied by the Shand House, just north of the Baxter Road, and defended by Bushrod Johnson's Tennessee brigade. A breakthrough here would rupture the connection between the new Confederate line and the Dimmock Line, and possibly give the Federals access to the Baxter Road as an avenue of attack directly into town. The attack would be led by Brig. Gen. Robert Potter's Second Division, with the other two IX Corps divisions (Ledlie and Willcox) supporting on the flanks.
The salient was a defensive line closest to the enemy. It invited an attack. Generals erected salients to protect or cover dominate ground beyond their entrenchments.
Stepping off to the attack at 3 a.m., Potter's men achieved one of the great tactical successes of the war, taking another mile of the main line and nearly 600 prisoners before running out of steam. Incredibly, Potter's men were unsupported on either flank, an error that he felt prevented the collapse of the entire Rebel line, "from the Appomattox to the Jerusalem Plank Road," as he later put it.
Willcox finally attacked on the left of Potter's division, but not until 2 p.m., and then the effort was so mismanaged as to succeed only in mangling one of the Federal brigades. At 6 p.m., Ledlie attacked the new Rebel line formed behind the Shand House Hill, and although initially successful in achieving a lodgement, the attack was unsupported and a Rebel counterattack that night drove Ledlie back with heavy losses.(This 6pm assault would be when Edward Tonkins Shinn would have been wounded as his unit was assigned to Ledlie's command.)
Foreshadowing tragic events a month and a half later (30 Jul 1864 Crater), Ledlie remained in the rear when his division went forward, lying on the ground in a drunken stupor, according to the post-war comments of one of his regimental commanders.
Other Federal attacks were uncoordinated and Beauregard was able to defeat them, one at a time, as they occurred. But he knew he was in trouble. Warren's V Corps had arrived that morning and was extending the Federal left next to Burnside.
(The remaining IX Corps division, 4/IX under Ferraro, was still guarding the James River bridges.)
During the night Potter had his men quietly take up position, massed for the attack, just behind their own picket line below the hill on which the Shand House stood.
Federal efforts on this day seemed even more disjointed and poorly planned than those of the 15th. The evening attack was a half-hearted effort along only a portion of the Rebel front. No one on the Federal side seems to have thought of sending a force south and west of Petersburg, then north, to strike the Dimmock Line where it was basically empty of troops. (In fairness to the Federal high command and the road network at Petersburg did not lend itself well to this kind of manuever.)
Efforts to advance along the river were hampered by enfilade fire from Rebel batteries north of the Appomattox.
Almost all of the fighting this day had been done by IX Corps, just as almost all of the fighting the day before had been by II Corps. On the Federal right, Smith's XVIII Corps did not accomplish much except to skirmish with the enemy. Hancock, on Smith's left, did very little on his front, although the continued problems he was having with his Gettysburg wound may have contributed to this.
While a vigorous effort by Hancock (especially Barlow, who was on Potter's right and might have been able to exploit that success) could well have been decisive, it cannot be ignored that the II Corps troops-- officers as well as men -- were physically exhausted from the marching and fighting of the previous four days.
So far, all of the Federal attacks had all come against the eastern face of the oval-shaped Dimmock Line, together with a very short stretch along the south face, and had in fact pushed it back quite a ways. The Federals now held a front from the Appomattox River all the way to the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad, and in fact a touch beyond the tracks. (The entire stretch of the Dimmock Line from Battery 3, near the river, to Battery 17, was now in Federal hands.)
Beauregard's right was in serious danger because of the Federal successes there and the advance --
however halting -- of Warren's V Corps, so he decided to take up a new line in the rear of his present position.
A general assault was made on the 18th, with disaster to the Nationals, who were repulsed at every point.
Then, after a loss of nearly 10,000 men, further attempts to take Petersburg by storm were abandoned for a while, and Grant prepared for a regular siege.
On June 19th, Ferrero's (4th) Division of colored troops rejoined the corps, having been absent during the whole of the previous campaign, engaged in duty at the rear. Ferrero's men were now placed in the trenches with the other three divisions. The part of the line occupied by the Ninth Corps was very near the enemy's works, and an incessant firing was kept up during the siege, resulting in a daily loss of men, killed or wounded. While there was a comparative quiet in front of the other corps positions, the men of the Ninth were subjected to the terrible strain of a constant watchfulness and deadly exposure. The enemy seemed to be excited to an undue activity by the presence of Ferrero's Colored Division.
The Ninth Corps was prominently connected with the siege, by reason of the immense mine which was dug from within and in front of its line. This mine, which was excavated by the 48th Pennsylvania, of Potter's Division, and was successfully exploded, but the assault which followed was a failure. During this assault Ferrero's colored regiments went into action and fought well, acquitting themselves creditably; their failure, like that of the white regiments in this affair, resulted from causes outside of the regiments themselves.
Most of the Union effort was focused just south of the fighting on June 15th and their poorly coordinated attacks offset the numerical advantages of the Northern forces by allowing Beauregard to concentrate his troops where needed.
Beauregard had been busy telegraphing Lee for the last several days for support from the main Confederate force near Richmond.
Lee was then convinced of Grant's real intentions and rushed reinforcements to Petersburg. (NPS)
The loss in the Ninth Corps at the mine, was 473 killed, 1,646 wounded, 1,356 missing; total, 3,475.
Immediately after this engagement, General Ledlie was relieved from command of the First Division, and General Julius White, of the Twenty-third Corps, was assigned to Ledlie's place.
After 30 Jul 1864
The U.S. Army convened a court of inquiry, which heard testimony for 16 days. Their Findings:
They found Burnside and Ledlie at fault. Only now, after Antietam and Fredericksburg and the Crater, was Burnside finally relieved of command.
The court of inquiry report on the battle was so damaging to Burnside that he requested a leave of absence from which he never returned. Ambrose E. Burnside resigned his commission on April 15, 1865. Rhode Island welcomed him as a hero. His warm, charismatic personality overcame the obstacles posed by his history of remarkable military incompetence to the extent that he was three times elected governor and, in 1874, U.S. Senator, which office he held until his death on Sept. 13, 1881.
James Ledlie was sent home on sick leave, never to return again. He resigned his commission in January 1865, having been literally read out of the service on Grant's orders. Gen. Meade referred to him as that
"Arrant physical coward." Ledlie made a fortune in building and promoting Western and Southern railroads. In 1882, he died of dropsy and jaundice at St. Mark's Hotel, New Brighton, Staten Island. His New York Times obituary does not mention the Battle of the Crater. Ledlie, NV, which was named for him in 1880, became a ghost town after his Nevada Central Railroad was torn up in 1938. At last report, all that remained was a collapsed wooden building and a solitary telegraph pole.
Edward Ferrero was found responsible for having been "where he could not see the operation of his troops [or know] the position of the two brigades of his division or whether they had taken Cemetery Hill."
As he had been with Ledlie in Ledlie's quarters consuming rum. Ferrero was transferred to Benjamin Butler's command.
Edward Ferrero never failed to praise his men for their courage under fire at the Crater. Despite the court of inquiry's finding, he was brevetted Major General on Dec. 2, 1864, for "meritorious service." After he was mustered out of the army in 1865, Ferrero returned to New York and, over the next three decades, operated a succession of splendid ballrooms and catering halls that, from their descriptions in the contemporary press, seem precursors of such institutions as Leonard's of Great Neck.
He died at his residence, 111 W. 78th St., on Monday, Dec. 11, 1899. His New York Times obituary does not mention the battle, either. He lies in Green-Wood Cemetery. His most enduring work, The Art of Dancing, has been reprinted.
Field & Staff personnel of the 2nd Pa. Provisional Heavy Artillery.--
Wilhelm, Thomas F&S Colonel
Barney, Benjamin G. F&S Colonel
Marsland, Mathew H. F&S Lieutenant Colonel
(Phillips) Philips, William B. F&S Major Adjutant
Witt, Stephen H. F&S Sergeant Major
Berger, William H. F&S Quartermaster Sergeant
(Benny) Benney, Thomas F&S Private Chief Musician
Davis, Samuel H. C Captain
Sharpe, Thomas C. C First Lieutenant
Clark, Samuel C Second Lieutenant
Non - Commissioned Officers (NCO's)--
Oleary, Matthew I. C Sergeant
Nolan, George W. C Private Sergeant
Oyer, Abraham S. C Private Sergeant
Terry, James C Private Sergeant
Rhinehart, Reinhart, Lewis W. C Private Sergeant
Condon, George E. C Private Corporal
Gest, William A. C Private Corporal
Lawhead, James C Private Corporal
Shelkey, John C Private Corporal
Shinn, Edward T. C Private Corporal
Wright, Isaac M. C Private Corporal
Melhorn, Simon C Private Second Corporal
Black, Theodore M. C Private Fourth Corporal
Abdell, Joseph H. Abdill, Decatur Baldwin, George A. Ball, Charles E. Benney, John Bird, Charles Black, Newton Black, William A. Boyer, Samuel Boyles, David E.(K.)Camp, Ezra P. Chubbuck, Aaron Clarke, Robert C. Clarke, Theodore Clary, Thomas I.(J.) Clayton, Lewis Colley, James R. Corbin, John L. Corbin, William Crawford, William Davis, George W. Davis, Samuel Ditzlear, Charles M. Ditzlear, Frank D. Doty, Sanford Dougherty, James Dripperd, Henry Dubbs, Samuel I. Edwards, Marcus L. England, John Fell, Erwin Fenemore, George A. Fenimore, George Fenimore, William A. Fennimore, George Fernsler, Harry Flaterback, Francis Force, John M.(W.) Forster, Martin Fuller, Perry H.(M.) Funk, John L. Geming, Elias W. Gilbert, Thomas Glass, Mathias Griner, Henry Ham, Milan Haney, Oliver M. Hanlon, Joseph F. Hartwick, John R. Harvey, George H. Harvey, John H. Heck, James C. Helms, John Henderson, Joseph R. Holley, Charles Hood, James Hoon, Robert Horn, Alfred Horn, Charles Huffman, George W. Hull, Jacob Inch, Edmund Jacobs, Patrick H. Jones, Jackson S. Jones, Robert Kates, Henry Keats, Henry Keenan, George Kelso, John W. Kent, William H. Kohlus, Andrew Kuhns, William Lafferty, John Lee, James Lewis, Clayton Lewis, William R. List, James Long, William Martin, Christian Marx, Charles W. Marx, Samuel McCreary, Albert McDermott, William McElroth, Robert McGee, Jackson McGee, Paxon McKean, Sr., William McLaughlin, John F. Merritt, Charles E. Mikesell, William M. Mills, George W. Morrow, James Mort, Levi Moyer, Isaac Muffly, Isaac Nelson, Acker R. Nolan, George W. Norberry, Charles Orth, William Ortwing, George Paul, John Peeler, William F. Pepper, George W. Powhoe, John Probst, George Purcell, William Reinhart, Frederick Relling, John Renker, John Rhodes, Almon Robinson, Cornelius Robinson, James Root, David C. Rought, Hiram Seagers, Vine H. Sensenny, Ferdinand Shearer, Walker Shelkey, Joseph Short, John Shumway, George W. Simpson, John D. Smith, Henry B. Smith, Isaac Staubs, John Thornsburg, Randolph Tivay, James Traub, George Trayer, John Troup, George Trump, Zirus VanVuskirk, William Vance, Thomas Vogus, Joseph Vreeland, Abraham Walter, Joseph Walters, Joseph Washburn, Winthrop Wilforne, David Williams, Henry Williams, James H. Wise, Christian Woods, George Zaschnett, George I.
In a letter written 25 Jun 1864 from the United States General Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland.--
Edward T. Shinn writes to his wife Mary Ann Schuyler - Shinn (later Fahey). Describing his war injuries. He was wounded at the battle of Petersburg, Va. While serving with Co. C 2nd Pa Provisional Heavy Artillery. Edward writes that he was hit between the shoulders and one hand shot to pieces - some of his fingers torn out by the roots. He feared amputation; wanted his 'Dear Wife' to have his wedding ring covered with 'my own blood'. Edward died two days after writing the letter.
The letter also states there were only 200 soldiers left from his company of 1500 after the battle of Petersburg.
Soldiers were paid between $13.00 to $16.00 dollars a month.
In June of 1864 the Federal government approved a $7.00 pay increase.
Artillery was dependant on the other branches of service for its protection. Typically, cannoniers were trained to depend on their cannon as a weapon and were not issued rifles. Batteries were pulled back when opposing infantry closed with them. It was a mark of a poor unit to allow itself to be overrun and have its guns captured.
Personnel of an Artillery Battery
* 1 captain
*2 first lieutenants
*2 second lieutenants
*1 first sergeant
Bates, Samuel P. History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-65, Harrisburg, 1868-1871.
Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion Compiled and Arranged from Official Records of the Federal and Confederate Armies, Reports of he Adjutant Generals of the Several States, the Army Registers, and Other Reliable Documents and Sources. Des Moines, Iowa: The Dyer Publishing Company, 1908.
Excerpt from Regimental Losses in The American Civil War, William Fox, Lt. Col., U.S.V. 1898
Officer photos-- http://www.generalsandbrevets.com/np/np2.htm
Harrison creek photo: http://Johnsmilitaryhistory.tripod.com/peterassault.html
(Excerpt from: www.civilwarhome.com/cwsites.htm)
Edward's Muster card; copy held by Charles S. Lewis. Original held by Carol Pollock a cousin.
Excerpts from a letter written by Edward to his wife.
Military pay: Soldiers letters (Butler & Pippitt) & NPS
NJDARM: Index to marriage records, 1848-1867
Groom Bride Location Registration date Reference
Shinn, Edward Schuyler, Mary Ann Burlington Burlington County: Springfield 17 Mar 1859 Bk. C-2: Pg. 179